Affinity Diagramming

A method for organizing data from research and interviews - also a fun activity for brainstorming with your team :)

Mental Model

A way to group the beliefs and feelings of users to help understand where product features might be well-matched or missing.

Task Analysis

Used to identify key areas of decision points for users, potential problems at those points, and solutions to help users make the right decision.

Red Route Analysis

Identify high-use features of a product to highlight focus areas for design change. Combine with User Flows for extra clarity.


Good communication tool for representing user goals and pain points, and for enabling roleplaying in the mind of the user.

User Flow

Map of the system architecture. Useful for collaboration with developers to ensure the user never encounters a roadblock.

User Testing

Conducting user testing is key to gathering data on user responses. I write Test Plans like this to structure the testing sessions.


A great way to communicate a user's experience visually - also to make sense of stories for larger projects.


Basic layouts of interfaces help communicate abstract designs by removing distracting UI elements. Good for quick communication with your team and users.


Lo-fi and Hi-fi prototypes are indispensible for testing with users. Depending on the project, I may use paper prototypes, CSS/HTML prototypes, or Axure.


Lo-fi and Hi-fi mockups complete the design and can be used as specs for developers or for sources of further user testing.